Since manual irrigation being performed during daily life hours, it is difficult to control the timing and amount in such irrigation. If not exerted at the right time and in the right amounts, irrigation will cause serious problems for plant health and development such as saltiness in the soil, leaf burns, fungus diseases, variegations in color, algae growth, and root rot. Irrigation carried out at high temperature in the daytime will cause huge amounts of water loss due to evaporation, and will deteriorate the soil quality and the plant’s nutritive balance.
Sprinkling, drip irrigation, and transpiration are controlled irrigation systems. Sprinkling irrigation systems are set up in two different ways as earth sprinkling systems and rotor and spray sprinkling systems –in manual and automatic ways respectively.
Timing of irrigation and the amount of the water used can be controlled in automatic irrigation systems, thus preventing many possible damages wrong watering may cause. For instance, the best time period in which plants get the best profit from water is between 04.00 and 05.00 in the morning but it is rather troublesome for humans to do the watering at these hours. An automatically programmed system, however, will by-pass the human factor, and the system itself will take into operation, performing the irrigation during an adequate time period and in adequate amounts.
Drip irrigation and subterranean transpiration, two other irrigation techniques, are automatically controllable systems. Timing and water amount can be controlled drip and transpiration systems. These are also very convenient irrigation systems both with respect to water saving and to the health of the plants.
THE IMPORTANCE OF AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION
*Time saving; you won’t have to spend hours watering the plants.
* Money saving; you can reduce water consumption up to 40% thanks to automatic irrigation.
*Getting the best profit from the plants; it will ensure growth of healthy plants,
*Protection of the environment; thanks to the productive use of water, you will be contributing to the saving of water, our most precious natural resource.
OTOMATİK SULAMADA KULLANILAN EKİPMANLAR
*PIPES: PE100 pipes are used in the setup of main and lateral lines in automatic irrigation systems.
-Soft, polyurethane pipes;
*VALVES: Polyethylene, brass, cast iron, and stainless steel valves are used in irrigation systems. The amounts of pressure and caliber of the cast iron and stainless steel tend to be huge. The valves to be utilized in irrigation lines should be in the class of PN6.
*ADDITIONAL MECHANICAL PARTS: Couplings, coupling sleeves, elbows, TEs, reductions, and blind flanges are some fitting material used in irrigation systems.
MEDHODS OF ASSEMBLING THE PIPES
1) Electro-fusion welding is the technology involving the welding of PE pipes by energizing with fittings that have resistance on their inner surface. The advantages of assembling with electro-fusion are:
- No shrinkage in the inner diameter of the pipes
- Flexibility, lightness, and low costs of the machinery and other equipment used,
- High welding speed,
- Full automatic EF welding operation and consequently requirement of minimum-level operation skills
- No decrease in pressure resistance in the welded area
PE piping systems are widely preferred especially for the following features:
Lightness and ease of use
Good welding properties
No dislocation or break at the joints under pressure
Resistance against cracking
Eesistance against chemical influences
*SPRAY SPRINKLING: The sprinkling distance carried by each sprinkling in the area to be irrigated is the base of the design. If the planned sprinkling distance is shorter than 5.5 meters, use of a spray sprinkling will be convenient. Technically, working band under pressure is 1,0 – 2,1 bars and the proper sprinkling distance is 0,6 – 5,5 m.
*ROTOR SPRINKLING: If the sprinkling distance on the green area to be irrigated is longer than 5,5 meters, use of a rotor sprinkling apparatus will be proper. Working band under pressure is 1,7 – 3,8 bars and the sprinkling distance can be between 5,5 and 45 meters. TEGA provides fittings that are compatible with Electro-fusion (EF) welding technique and that satisfy the latest standards.
Electro-fusion technique has two important components:
-The electro-fusion fitting (the polyurethane part with resistance wires in it)
-The electro-fusion welding machine (the machine that automatically selects and applies the required voltage and welding time when connected to the fitting)
There is a barcode tag on the EF fittings indicating the welding information (welding voltage and duration). Information necessary for EF welding is entered on the machine either manually or via this tag; or is transferred on the machine through the barcode scanner.
How is Electro-fusion Carried Out?
-Put the pipe ends to be assembled into EF fitting
-Connect the welding ends of the EF welding machine to the studs on the fitting.
-The machine applies the required voltage for the EF fitting.
-Wires get hot with the energy around, beginning to melt the surrounding material.
-The melted material moving towards the pipe surface heats up the pipe surface, allowing EF fitting and the pipes to stick together.